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1986 "Sentence Frame Effects on Children's Category Judgements", Papers and Reports on Child Language Development 25, 1-8.

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1990 "Precise and Vague Quantities in Writing on Economics", in Nash, W. (ed.): The Writing Scholar: Studies in Academic Discourse. Newbury Park: Sage, 95-117.

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1994 Vague Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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1983 The Semantics of the Modal Auxiliaries. London: Croom Helm.

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1990 "Rhetorical Contexts and Hedges", Rhetoric Society Quarterly 20:1, 49-59.

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1988 "Readers' Learning from Prose: The Effects of Hedges", Written Communication 5:2, 184-202.

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1976 "Speaking of Watergate: Language and Moral Accountability", Centrum 4:2, 105-138.

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1982 Linguistics and the Professions. New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corp.

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1984 "'Stop me if You've Heard this one' - Narrative Disclaimers as Breakthrough into Performance", Fabula 25:3/4, 214-228.

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1994 Sprachliche Signale zur Markierung der Unsicherheit oder Unschärfe von Aussagen im Neuhochdeutschen. Berlin: Akademie Verlag. (Sitzungsberichte der Sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig. Philologisch-historische Klasse 134/3). Erickson, B.; Lind, E.A.; Johnson, B.C. and O'Barr, W.M.

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1985 "Text- und Stilmerkmale englischer Zeitschriftenartikel der Pädagogik", in Graustein, G. et al. (ed.): Beiträge zur englischen Textlinguistik. (= Linguistische Studien. Reihe A, Arbeitsberichte 135, Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR), 124-133.

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1991 "Pragmatic Modifications on the 'Representative' Speech Act of Defining", Journal of Pragmatics 15, 253-264.

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1975 "Hedged Performatives", Cole, P. and Morgan, J. L. (eds.): Syntax and Semantics. Vol. 3. New York: Academic Press, 187-210.

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1980 "Conversational Mitigation", Journal of Pragmatics 4:4, 341-350.

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1990 "An Approach to Discourse Markers", Journal of Pragmatics. 14:3. 383-395.

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1984 Opening Pandora's Box. A Sociological Analysis of Scientists' Discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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1994 "Speech Styles: Attitudes and Inferences", in Asher, R.E. (ed.): The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Vol.8. Oxford: Pergamon Press,

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1993 "Heckenausdruck", in Glück, H. (ed.): Metzler Lexikon Sprache. Stuttgart: Metzler, 243.

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1993 English Grammar: A Function-Based Introduction. Amsterdam: Benjamins. Glass, A. L. and Holyoak, K. J.

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1979 "Unverbürgte und unverbindliche Äußerungen im Englischen", Grazer Linguistische Studien 9, 34-47.

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1984 "Cognitive Stage Differences in Types of Speaker Uncertainty Markers", Language and Speech 27:4, 323-331.

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1993 "Political Language and Textual Vagueness", Pragmatics 3:1, 1-28.

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1989 "Obviously, Natural Language Maxim Hedges, x-bar Syntax, ok?", Linguistica Silesiana 10, 49-60.

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1990 "Politeness Phenomena in Modern Chinese", Journal of Pragmatics 14, 237-257. Günther, U.

1992 "und aso das isch gar need es Tabu bi üs, nei, überhaupt need". Sprachliche Strategien bei Phone-in-Sendungen am Radio zu tabuisierten Themen. Bern et al.: Peter Lang. Haarmann, H.

1992 "Deference, Politeness and the Status of Language - a Study in the Variability and Changeability of a Crucial Relationship", in Ammon, U. and Hellinger, M. (eds.): Status Change of Languages. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter,

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1989 "Linguistic Politeness in Professional Prose: A Discourse Analysis of Auditors' Suggestion Letters, with Implications for Business Communication Pedagogy", Written Communication 6: 3, 312-339.

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1983 Fachkommunikation: Entwicklung, linguistische Konzepte, betriebliche Konzepte. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter.

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1972 "Almost", Papers from the Second Scandinavian Conference on Linguistics 1972, 64-71.

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1983 "Mitigation, Indirection, and Women's Speech", Papers from the Mid-America Linguistics Conference 1982, 76-90.

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1990 "Sex-Based Differences in Compliment Behavior", Language in Society 19:2, 201-224.

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1975 "On 'in that'", Proceedings of the First Berkeley Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society 1, 189-195.

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1984 "Studentensprache, Spontisprache", Muttersprache. 94:5/6, 404-416.

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1982a "The Functions of Tag Questions", English Language Research Journal 3, 40-65. Holmes, J.

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1984 "Hedging your Bets and Sitting on the Fence: Some Evidence for Hedges as Support Structures", Te Reo 27, 47-62

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1986 "Functions of 'You Know' in Women's and Men's Speech", Language in Society 15:1, 1-21.

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1988 "Doubt and Certainty in ESL Textbooks", Applied Linguistics 9:1, 21-44.

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1990 "Hedges and Boosters in Women's and Men's Speech", Language and Communication 10:3, 185-205.

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1993 "New Zealand Women are Good to Talk to: An Analysis of Politeness Strategies in Interaction", Journal of Pragmatics 20, 91-116.

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1989 "The Evaluative Consequences of Hedges, Hesitations, and Intensifiers: Powerful and Powerless Speech Styles", Human Communication Research 15:3, 383-406.

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1987 "The Effects of Hedges and Hesitations on Impression Formation in a Simulated Courtroom Context", Western Journal of Speech Communication 51:2, 173-188.

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1981 "Politeness Markers in English and in German", in Coulmas, F. (ed.): Conversational Routines. The Hague: Mouton de Gruyter, 157-185.

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1988 "Speech Act Performance in German: On the Realization of the Speech Actions 'Request' and 'Apology'", Linguistische Berichte 114, 114-133.

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1983 Understatements and Hedges in English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

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1994 "Hedging in Academic Writing and EAP Textbooks", English for Specific Purposes 13/3, 239-256.

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1983 "An Analysis of a Cleft Conditional in Japanese - Where Grammar Meets Rhetoric", Journal of Pragmatics 7:3, 251-262.

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1989 "Remarks on Politeness Strategies in the Dialects Spoken in Muntenia", Revue Roumaine de Linguistique 34: 4, 340-355.

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1992 "Zur Vagheitsproblematik und Prototypentheorie", Deutsch als Fremdsprache 29:3, 167-172.

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1983 "Comprisers in English: A Cross-Disciplinary Approach to their Interpersonal Significance", Journal of Pragmatics 7:2, 191-206.

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1991 Language Awareness in the Classroom. London: Longman Group.

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1993 "Universality and Relativity in Cross-Cultural Politeness Research", Multilingua 12, 13-50.

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1987 "Code Switching and Social Integration in Bilingual Conversation", Australian Review of Applied Linguistics 4, 37-51.

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1987 Women, Fire and Dangerous Things. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Lakoff, G.

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1980 Metaphores We Live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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1983 Principles of Pragmatics. London: Longman.

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1989 "Remembering and Representing Prose: Quoted Speech as a Data Source", Discourse Processes 12:1, 105-125.

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1994 "Fremdagens, Eindringlinge, Piraten und unsichtbare Killer. Metaphern-Modelle als Übergangsphänomene zwischen Theorietexten, fachlichen PR-Texten und populärwissenschaftlichen Texten zum Thema AIDS und HIV-Forschung", in Spillner, B. (ed.): Fachkommunikation (Kongreßbeiträge zur 24. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Angewandte Linguistik GAL e.V.). Frankfurt/Main et al.: Peter Lang, 85-87.

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1982 "Labels and Hedges: The Metalinguistic Turn", Language and Style 15:3, 193-207.

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1990 "Geben Sie mir so'n Streuselapfel: Hedging in Authentic Speech", Die Unterrichtspraxis/Teaching German 23:2, 121-28.

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1992 Sprachliche Routinen und Rituale (Werkstattreihe Deutsch als Fremdsprache 36). Frankfurt am Main et al.: Peter Lang.

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1985 Cross Language Studies in Pragmatics (Jyväskylä Cross Language Studies 11). Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä.

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1991 "Metadiscourse in Intercultural Communication", Eriskoiskielet ja käännösteoria. VAKKI-seminaari XI. Vöyri. 09.-10.02.1992. Vaasan yliopisto: Kielten laitos, 186-194.

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1988 "Hedging as a Translation Problem in Scientific Texts", in Laurén, C. and Nordman, M. (eds.): Special Languages: From Humans Thinking to Thinking Machines. Clevedon/Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters, 171-175.

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1994 "Metalanguaging and Discourse Markers in Bilingual Communication", Language in Society 23, 325-366.

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1991 "Active Verbs with Inanimate Subjects in Scientific Prose", English for Specific Purposes 10:1, 15-33.

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1989 "Politeness and Conversational Universals-Observations in Japanese", Multilingua 8, 2/3, 207-221.

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1992 "Effects of Communication Apprehension, Familiarity of Partner, and Topic on Selected 'Women's Language' Features", Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 21:1, 17-30.

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